Electrochemical sensor for selective tyramine determination, amplified by a molecularly imprinted polymer film
Ayerdurai, V., Cieplak, M., Noworyta, K. R., Gajda, M., Ziminska, A., Sosnowska, M., Piechowska, J., Borowicz, P., Lisowski, W., Shao, S., D’Souza, F., Kutner, W.
Bioelectrochemistry 138 (2021) 107695
A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film based electrochemical sensor for selective determination of tyramine was devised, fabricated, and tested. Tyramine is generated in smoked and fermented food products. Therefore, it may serve as a marker of the rottenness of these products. Importantly, intake of large amounts of tyramine by patients treated with monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors may lead to a “cheese effect”, namely, a dangerous hypertensive crisis. The limit of detection at S/N = 3 of the chemosensor, in both differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) determinations, with the use of the Fe(CN)64-/Fe(CN)63- redox probe, was 159 and 168 µM tyramine, respectively. The linear dynamic concentration range was 290 µM to 2.64 mM tyramine. The chemosensor was highly selective with respect to the glucose, urea, and creatinine interferences. Its DPV determined apparent imprinting factor was 5.6. Moreover, the mechanism of the “gate effect” in the operation of the polymer film-coated electrodes was unraveled.